For a time he was a theater director in Detroit. His book, North America, Wisconsin, Tips for Emigrants created quite a sensation. He died in 1875 in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. Friedrich Pauer, Moritz Wiener, Friedrich Luedeking, Max Lilienthal, Heinrich von Martels, Leopold Alberti, Carl Aulenbach, Carl Weitershausen — and another from the Hambacher Festival —, Heinrich A. Bielefeld have all composed poetry. Born in Germany, emigrating at an early age, they have deep, inextinguishable reverence for the old homeland in their hearts, and this feeling is often found in somewhat rudimentary yet gripping expression in their poetry. It is a distinguished army, this so-called group of "pre-forty-eighters," and almost every one of them bestowed honor upon the land of his birth and the land that he chose.
The following biographical notes concerning German-American poets and writers are taken from the well-known work "German in America", Contributions to History of German-American Literature by Dr. G. A. Zimmermann, the many-year superintendent of the German Department for the public school system of Chicago. The book is a goldmine for all those, who wish to involve themselves with German-American literature. The notes were supplemented in the German-American anthology, which was published by Dr. Gotthold August Neeff in Ellenville, New York under the title From the Land of the Star Spangled Banner in an edition for the Winter University Bookshop in Heidelberg and through individual pieces of research.
Leading the ranks of the 48ers is Caspar Butz (1825 - 1885). He was a son of the red earth, born in Hagen, who came to America in 1854. His participation in the revolution caused his departure from his homeland. In Chicago he took part in political squirmishes and in the building of the Republican Party. He was elected to the Legislature in 1857. During the Civil War he put his feather to the good cause and in this momentous era he wrote a portion of his best work, Poetry of a German American, and many other works.
Carl Heinrich Schnauffer (1823 - 1854) from Heimsheim was a fighter in the Baden rebellion. He fled to Baltimore. Here he established the Balitmore Wecker. He wrote "Cromwell," "Wreaths for the Dead" and other works.
Carl Heinzen (1809 - 1880) from Grevenbroich near Düsseldorf, was expelled by Bonn for rebellious orator. He went to Batavia but after his return he made so many political enemies that he claimed the right of asylum in Switzerland. He sailed to New York but returned to Germany at the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution. Forced to flee, he returned to the United States in 1850. He is the founder of the Pionier. He wrote "Poetry" and many other works.
August Becker (1814 - 1871) from Hochweissel in Hessen was a member of secret societies and this earned him a 4 year term in prison. He took part in the 1848 Revolution and fled to America in 1852. He edited the Baltimore Wecker, which was an anti-slavery newspaper in Maryland; at the outbreak of the Civil War he became a field chaplain of the Steuben Regiment from New York and spent three years in the field of battle. He again became editor of the Wecker and later edited various journals in Cincinnati. Wilhelm Rothacker (1828 - 1859) from Baden likewise took part in the Revolution, was driven from his studies and his homeland, and fled to America in 1850. He worked for several papers in Pittsburgh and Cincinnati but luck never smiled on him in his new homeland and he died under tragic circumstances. Niclas Müller (1809 - 1875) from Langenau near Ulm.
Also affected by the 1848 Movement, he fled to Switzerland and then to New York in 1853. There he was a typesetter and he established his own business. He wrote Lieder, etc. Gustav Wilhelm Eisenlohr (1811 - 1881) from Lörrach in Baden, was accused of high treason because of his participation in the revolution. He fled to Texas. He studied theology in Halle and Heidelberg and worked in America in Neu-Braunfels, Texas, Cincinnati, Ohio and Dallas, Texas. He wrote Christliche Lyra, a Petrarch translation and other works.
Perhaps the most important of the men, which the '48 Movement sent to America, was Friedrich Hassaurek. Born in Vienna on October 8, 1832, he participated as a member of the student corps in the 1848 Revolution. He was superficially wounded. In 1849 he came to America and he settled in Cincinnati. He became a journalist, for a moderate length of time published the Hochwächter, and established the "Free Men's Society" with a man called Karl Obermann; from then on he began his activity as a public orator in all parts of the United States. In 1857 Hassaurek took up the practice of law; he acquired a distinguished clientele while still actively participating in politics. He helped to establish the Republican Party. In 1860 and 1868 he was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in Chicago and in 1861 he was appointed ambassador to Ecuador by President Lincoln. Hassaurek returned to the United States in 1865 and took over the editorial chair of the Cincinnati Volksblattes. Afterwards he became half owner of the newspaper. He compiled two substantial works in the English language: Four Years among Spanish-Americans and The Secret of the Andes. Both works were translated into German and a collection of poems in the German language was published under the title Welke Blüthen und Blätter [Faded Blossoms and Leaves]. As a public orator and journalist Hassaurek scarcely met his equal among the German-Americans. He spoke many languages and possessed the same fluency and agility in English as he did in German. He went to Europe at the beginning of the 1880s and he died in Paris on October 3, 1885.
One of the most interesting women in German-America is Mathilde Franziska Anneke. She was born the daughter of a respected Catholic family, named Giesler, on April 3, 1817 in Blankenstein on the Ruhr. At the age of 19 she married a Mr. von Tabouillot, from whom she was divorced a year later. Her comprehensive education and literary talent enabled her to edit The Westphalia Journal, to which Levin Schücking and Ferdinand Freiligrath contributed. In 1847 she married the former Prussian artillary officer Fritz Anneke. During his political imprisonment she established the New Colonial Newspaper and then the Women's News, a newspaper dealing with women's and workers' rights. Both papers were promptly suppressed. She participated in the revolution with her husband and marched with him, high on horse, at the head of the Palatine Revolutionary Army in Karlsruhe. As political refugees the couple came to America in 1849. In Milwaukee she established in 1852 the German Women's News, which she later moved to New York, then Jersey City and Newark. Due to protracted illness her newspaper ceased publication. From 1860 to 1865 Mrs. Anneke lived in Switzerland as a correspondent for the Belletristischen Journals and the Illinois State News. After her return to the states she established in Milwaukee a private girls school. She died November 25, 1884 after a serious illness.
She was a woman of intellect and noble character. She wrote Products of the Red Earth and The Spirit House in New York.
Eduard Dorsch (1822 - 1887) was also driven here by the Storm Year. He studied medicine in Munich and Würzburg, the city of his birth. He practiced in Monroe, Michigan. He was one of the electors of Lincoln. He wrote From the Old and New World and other works.
Albert Sigel (1827 - 1884) from Sinsheim, Baden was a younger brother of General Sigel. He took part in the revolution and fled to America in 1853. He enlisted in the Civil War and was immediately made a colonel. Later he became an adjutant-general from Missouri. He wrote poetry and other pieces.
Hans Hermann Behr, born in 1818 in Köthen, made grand treks to Australia, Africa, etc. He took part in the revolution and came to America in 1850. He was a physician and later a professor at the Pharmaceutical College in San Francisco. He wrote poetry. The Schleswiger Friedrich Lexow (born 1827) was sentenced to eight years imprisonment for political agitation,
Caption under picture reads Ludwig Aug. Wollenweber, "The Old Man of the Mountain."
but was pardoned after serving one year. In 1853 he emigrated to New York, where his cousin Rudolf Lexow hired him for his periodical, the Belletristisches Journal. He wrote poetry and other pieces. Rudolf Lexow was born on January 10, 1823 in Schleswig. He came during the 1840s to America and established the above periodical.
Otto Brethauer (1832 - 1882) from Lower Franken, also expelled because of the revolution. Despite difficult life circumstances he was an irrepressible humorist. He wrote From My Portfolio. Friedrich Otto Dresel (1824 - 1881) from Detmold, was sentenced to two years imprisonment for high treason and fled to Baltimore in 1849. Politically active, highly gifted musically and literarily, he ended his own life because of bad financial specuations. He wrote Oscar Welden, prize-winning novels and other works.
Conrad Krez, born in 1828 in Landau, was sentenced to death in absentia for his part in the Baden revolution. He fled to America in 1850. He was an attorney. He settled in Sheboygan, Wisconsin and later was appointed to the State Attorney General's Office. Taking part in the Civil War, he reached the rank of Brigadier General. After the war he again became an attorney. In 1886 he was appointed by Cleveland Federal Tax Collector in Milwaukee. In 1892 he became State's Attorney for Milwaukee and in 1895 Commissioner of Courts. He died March 8, 1897. Among his writings of particular greatness are: To My Fatherland, The Refugee, The Vagrant, Renunciation and Consolation, The German Muse in America, etc.
Among the numerous important and educated men, who set the year 1848 in motion, these too may be named: Emil Dietzsch (1829 - 90), Edmund Märklin (1816 - 92), Julius Dresel (1816 - 91), Carl Adolf Pohle (1813 - 59), Albert Wolff, born 1825, a theologian, who later became editor of the Volkszeitung in St. Paul, Minnesota. Theodor Hielscher, born in 1833 in Nimptsch, Silesia, provided masterful translations of Lessing's Nathan the Wise from the German and the Book of Creation from the Hebrew. Emil Querner (1839 - 86), Adalbert Höpke, who first sough gold in California and later made his name as a physician and journalist until death took him in 1873. Henricus vom See was born with the name Wilhelm Dilg in Nierstein on the Rhine in 1837. He returned to Germany in 1884. Rudolf Puchner was born in Beutelsbach, Württemberg in 1829, emigrated and settled in Neu Holstein, Wisconsin.
Heinrich Berger, a painter and sculptor born in 1816, and Joseph Zentmeyer (1826 - 89), who settled in Philadelphia in 1853, was a manufacturer of excellent microscopes, and had a golden sense of humor, which amused all his friends, round out the list of poets and writers, who abandonned their fatherland and lived in the hope of seeing the ideal, which their homeland did not esteem, come to fruition in America. Luck smiled upon many of them, life devoured some, but none renounced his greatest legacy, — German Idealism. — In good conscience one may declare that the new times did not fall short of the bygone era when it came to its intellectual heros.
The next generation of immigrants, who, unlike those seeking asylum, felt themselves spiritually united with the homeland of their fathers, also richly contributed to the glorification and expansion of German sentiment in prose and poetry and thus testified to the superabundant plenum of German-American
poetic artistry, which approached the pinnacle of the German word and intellect.
First of all let Heinrich A. Rattermann be named. Born on October 14, 1832 in Ankum, Westphalia, he came to America in 1846. As a brick maker, then a painter and later an owner of a grocery store, his life was difficult. In 1874 he succeeded in taking over the leadership of the Pioneer, which he owned until 1885. The paper ceased publication two years later. In 1886 Rattermann founded the German-American Magazine, which was published only for one year. Rattermann published his poetry under the pseudnym "Hugo Reimmund." Especially worthy of gratitude are Rattermann's contributions to German-American history and the many suggestions he made in pursuing this course. He lives in Cincinnati.
Dr. Gustav Brühl, known by the name Kara Georg (Serbian for Black George), was born in 1826 in Herfort and compiled Poetry of the Primal Forest and other poetic works on wilderness beauty. He was a respected physician and teacher in Cincinnati. He died February 16, 1903.
Heinrich Binder, born in Vienna in 1829, may still be counted among the 48ers. He emigrated in 1852 and became editor of the Illinois Staatszeitung and later chief editor of Puck. He died in New York in 1901. Johann W. Dietz, born in Cologne in 1835, came to America in 1854. At first he worked in the printing trade and he ascended the ranks quickly. It was he, whom we must thank for the introduction of German language instruction in a part of the Chicago Public School system. Autumn Leaves is the title of a collection of poetry by him.
Julius Loeb, born in Edenkoben of the Rhine Palatinate in 1822, settled in New York in 1860 and worked as a merchant. He wrote poetry and other works. Otto Welden, known as P. J. Reuss, was born in Fulda in 1834. He came to New York in 1851. He was a physician in the Civil War. He wrote Charles XII, dramas and other works. Gottfried Worch (1810 - 81) came from Vatterode near Mansfeld. He enjoyed the protection of Tieck, Fouque and Alexander von Humboldt. He came to America in 1853, where he made his living as a special occasions poet. He wrote Songs of Time and other works.
Georg Hess, born in Pfungstadt in 1832, emigrated in 1850 and returned to his homeland in 1877. He wrote Joys of a Church Festival and other works. Philipp Haimbach, born in Mannheim in 1827, settled in America in 1851. He wrote The Orphan and other works. He died in Philadelphia in 1902, having settled there in 1852. Friedrich Grill, born in Kusel in the Palatinate in 1838, took part in the Civil War as an officer. He wrote poetry.
Ferdinand Moras was born in Dovern near Aachen in 1821. He wrote Poetry and Marginal Sketches. He came to Philadelphia in 1854
Caption under picture reads Johann B. Hertzog.
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